Linguistics is a very broad topic and may be divided up as follows [paraphrased from]:

Some written languages use majuscules (upper case) and miniscules (lower case) while some languages have only one case. EG: Latin used one case until miniscules were developed, so the old case became upper case.

Writing systems (scripts) use three kinds of symbols or characters (a glyph is a graphical representation of a character).

Linguists often use International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) a phonetic transcription system for phonetically representing spoken languages. The standard is to place IPA pronunciations either in square brackets ("[" and "]") or slashes ("/") for narrow or broad transcriptions respectively. EG: The English word "pretzel" could be annotated as [pʰɹ̥ɛʔtsɫ̩] or /prɛtsəl/. I'm not a linguist so my pronunciation transcriptions are rather crude and I will enclose them in back slashes ("\"). Phonetic alphabets (EG: NATO phonetic alphabet is Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey Xray Yankee Zulu) are actually spelling alphabets for sending messages by sound signals instead of say by flags or flashing lights.

Various linguistic terms.

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