There are 16 basic VGA (Video Graphics Array) colors for RGB color systems. Eight of the colors can be made by different combinations of red, green, and blue being either at max (100%) or off (0%). These eight "Tier 1" colors happen to be web compliant. The other eight "Tier 2" colors are made from settings that utilize combinations using 0%, 50%, and 75%. These all happen to not be "web compliant".

*Not one of the 16 basic VGA colors. This will apply to the entire page.

Tier 1 Colors Tier 2 Colors
Color Standard VGA Name MS and W3C Name RGB in decimal, hexadec., and percent Color Standard VGA Name MS and W3C Name RGB in decimal, hexadec., and percent
  BlackX11 0-0-0
00-00-00
0-0-0
  GrayX11 128-128-128
80-80-80
50-50-50
  WhiteX11 255-255-255
FF-FF-FF
100-100-100
  Light GrayX11: D3-D3-D3 SilverX11 192-192-192
C0-C0-C0
75-75-75
  RedX11 255-0-0
FF-00-00
100-0-0
  Dark RedX11: 8B-0-0 MaroonX11 128-0-0
80-0-0
50-0-0
  GreenX11:See 0-80-0 LimeX11 0-255-0
00-FF-00
0-100-0
  Dark GreenX11: 0-64-0 GreenX11 0-128-0
0-80-0
0-50-0
  BlueX11 0-0-255
00-00-FF
0-0-100
  Dark BlueX11: 0-0-8B NavyX11 0-0-128
0-0-80
0-0-50
  CyanX11 AquaX11 0-255-255
00-FF-FF
0-100-100
  Dark CyanX11: 0-8B-8B TealX11 0-128-128
0-80-80
0-50-50
  MagentaX11 FuchsiaX11 255-0-255
FF-00-FF
100-0-100
  Dark MagentaX11: 8B-0-8B PurpleX11 128-0-128
80-0-80
50-0-50
  YellowX11 255-255-0
FF-FF-00
100-100-0
  Dark YellowX11: NA OliveX11 128-128-0
80-80-0
50-50-0

The VGA model may be used to get a "feel" of the colors in the RGB system. It is interesting to note that two colors that are typically included in a box of crayons are missing:

As of 2011-09: Google Documents has "primary" hues of red, orange, yellow, green cyan, blue, purple, and cyan. They all correspond to VGA except for these two:

At http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/syndata.html#color-units, the W3C put white in the middle and surrounded it with primaries of the VGA colorwheel, then put the the darker versions of the primaries on the outside. Then they threw the other hue-less colors on the bottom. They added the X11 orange, but I added the X11 brown above orange as a darker orange.

brown #a52a2a
maroon #800000 red #ff0000 orange #ffa500 yellow #ffff00 olive #808000
purple #800080 fuchsia #ff00ff white #ffffff lime #00ff00 green #008000
navy #000080 blue #0000ff aqua #00ffff teal #008080
black #000000 silver #c0c0c0 gray #808080

Just for fun here is the older 16 CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) colors. xA8 =  168, and is just short of 66% of xFF = 255. Only black is truly common between the two.

Full CGA 16-color palette
(hex values adapted from MC6845 specification)
0 -- black
#000000
8 -- (dark) gray
#545454*
1 -- blue
#0000A8*
9 -- bright blue
#5454FE*
2 -- green
#00A800*
10 -- bright green
#54FE54*
3 -- cyan
#00A8A8*
11 -- bright cyan
#54FEFE*
4 -- red
#A80000*
12 -- bright red
#FE5454*
5 -- magenta
#A800A8*
13 -- bright magenta
#FE54FE*
6 -- brown (orange)
#A85400*
14 -- yellow
#FEFE54*
7 -- white (light gray)
#A8A8A8*
15 -- bright white
#FEFEFE*

In "Numeric" Order

The names in parentheses indicate a typical name for the color.

By 0.00 and 1.00. 2*2*2 = 8 colors. VGA "Tier 1". Note that this is the same as VGA Tier 1 but in a different order.

R G B Color Color Name
0.00 0.00 0.00   black
0.00 0.00 1.00   blue
0.00 1.00 0.00   green
0.00 1.00 1.00   cyan
1.00 0.00 0.00   red
1.00 0.00 1.00   magenta
1.00 1.00 0.00   yellow
1.00 1.00 1.00   white

By 0.00, 0.50, and 1.00. 3*3*3 = 27 colors. VGA "Tier 2+". This encompasses all 16 VGA "Tier 1" and VGA "Tier 2" colors (except for light gray = white-gray = 0.25, 0.25, 0.25), but also includes 15 additional colors.

R G B Color Color Name
0.00 0.00 0.00   black
0.00 0.00 0.50   dark blue
0.00 0.00 1.00   blue
0.00 0.50 0.00   dark green
0.00 0.50 0.50   dark cyan
0.00 0.50 1.00   blue-cyan (azure)*
0.00 1.00 0.00   green
0.00 1.00 0.50   green-cyan (teal)*
0.00 1.00 1.00   cyan
0.50 0.00 0.00   dark red
0.50 0.00 0.50   dark magenta
0.50 0.00 1.00   blue-magenta (violet)*
0.50 0.50 0.00   dark yellow
0.50 0.50 0.50   gray
0.50 0.50 1.00   light blue*
0.50 1.00 0.00   green-yellow (spring)*
0.50 1.00 0.50   light green*
0.50 1.00 1.00   light cyan*
1.00 0.00 0.00   red
1.00 0.00 0.50   red-magenta (pink)*
1.00 0.00 1.00   magenta
1.00 0.50 0.00   red-yellow (orange)*
1.00 0.50 0.50   light red*
1.00 0.50 1.00   light magenta*
1.00 1.00 0.00   yellow
1.00 1.00 0.50   light yellow*
1.00 1.00 1.00   white

By 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00. 5*5*5 = 125 colors. VGA "Tier 3". This would encompass all of the VGA "Tier 2+", and more colors including the light gray missing from VGA "Tier 2+".

VGA Tier 1, VGA Shaded, and VGA Tinted

Tier 1 VGA Shaded (100% to 50%) Tinted (0% to 50%)
R G B Color Color Name R G B Color Color Name R G B Color Color Name
0.00 0.00 0.00 black   0.00 0.00 0.00 black   0.50 0.50 0.50 light black (gray)
0.00 0.00 1.00 blue   0.00 0.00 0.50 dark blue   0.50 0.50 1.00 light blue
0.00 1.00 0.00 green   0.00 0.50 0.00 dark green   0.50 1.00 0.50 light green
0.00 1.00 1.00 cyan   0.00 0.50 0.50 dark cyan   0.50 1.00 1.00 light cyan
1.00 0.00 0.00 red   0.50 0.00 0.00 dark red   1.00 0.50 0.50 light red
1.00 0.00 1.00 magenta   0.50 0.00 0.50 dark magenta   1.00 0.50 1.00 light magenta
1.00 1.00 0.00 yellow   0.50 0.50 0.00 dark yellow   1.00 1.00 0.50 light yellow
1.00 1.00 1.00 white   0.50 0.50 0.50 dark white (gray)   1.00 1.00 1.00 white

By Hue: Primary (P), Intermediates (I), and Secondary (S)

The VGA "intermediate" colors make shaded versions by converting 50% to 25%, and VGA "tinted" versions by converting 50% to 75%. There are 36 colors here.

R G B Color Color Name Hue Type Shaded Tinted
1.00 0.00 0.00 red P
1.00 0.00 0.50   red-magenta (pink)* I    
1.00 0.00 1.00 magenta S
0.50 0.00 1.00   blue-magenta (violet)* I    
0.00 0.00 1.00 blue P
0.00 0.50 1.00   blue-cyan (azure)* I    
0.00 1.00 1.00 cyan S
0.00 1.00 0.50   green-cyan (teal)* I    
0.00 1.00 0.00 green P
0.50 1.00 0.00   green-yellow (spring)* I    
1.00 1.00 0.00 yellow S
1.00 0.50 0.00   red-yellow (orange)* I    

By Value

R G B Color Color Name
0.00 0.00 0.00   black
0.25 0.25 0.25   black-gray*
0.50 0.50 0.50   gray
0.75 0.75 0.75   white-gray
1.00 1.00 1.00   white

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