Kata, or forms, are formal exercises, a detailed pattern of movements usually performed solo or with a partner. While any fixed performance piece or drill (a monologue, a musical piece, etc.) may be considered a kata, the term kata is usually used in the martial context. Some simpler kata may look like a sequence of drills strung together, but most kata do not. A kata is a performance piece often used to transfer techniques, principles, style, and emphasis. Older kata were not written down until recent times and have almost certainly been modified during transmission. Like a musical piece, the same kata may be performed with significant differences between different styles, schools of the same style, and individuals of the same school. The essential "tune" is usually recognizable, but some times the "dialects" may have drifted by tremendous degrees.

Every language may or may not have a term equivalent to kata. Here

See also some of my posts on kata:

The following is an attempt to reconcile the karate kata, especially since there is a significant overlap.

Taikyoku

Creation: Taikyoku = 太極 = 1st course = basic ultimate. Creator: Funakoshi, Gichin. Aka: Juni no kata (in Shito ryu).

Description: Simplified versions of the Pinian-Heian kata.

Basic execution:

  1. Right foot pivot, turn left 90 degrees, step downward block.
  2. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch. (B on embusen)
  3. Left foot pivot, step backwards turning right 180 degree, step downward block.
  4. Right foot pivot, step forward middle punch.
  5. Right foot pivot, turn left 90 degree, step forward downward block.
  6. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch.
  7. Right foot pivot, step forward middle punch.
  8. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch. KIAI! (C on embusen)
  9. Right foot pivot, turn left 270 degrees downward block.
  10. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch. (D on embusen)
  11. Left foot pivot, step backwards turning right 180 degree, step downward block.
  12. Right foot pivot, step forward middle punch. (C on embusen)
  13. Right foot pivot, turn left 90 degree, step forward downward block.
  14. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch.
  15. Right foot pivot, step forward middle punch.
  16. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch. KIAI! (A on embusen)
  17. Right foot pivot, turn left 270 degrees downward block.
  18. Left foot pivot, step forward middle punch. (B on embusen)
  19. Left foot pivot, step backwards turning right 180 degree, step downward block.
  20. Right foot pivot, step forward middle punch. (A on embusen)

Embusen:

   C--D
   |
   |
   |
   |
B--A

Kata:

Styles:

Links:

Pinan-Heian

Creation: Pinan series [W]. Creator: Itosu, Anko. Description: Pieces of older kata like Kanku and Gojushiho combined with Itosu's own material. Styles: Wado; Kyokushin.

Creation: Heian series [W] = 平安. Creator: Funakoshi, Gichin modified the Pinian kata, usually making for more athletic techniques. Styles: Shotokan.

Kata:

Naihanchi-Tekki

Creation: Tekki = Naihanchi = Naifuanchin 1. Creator: Matsumura, Sokon.

Creation: Tekki = Naihanchi = Naifuanchin 2 & 3. Creator: Itosu, Anko.

Description: Extensive use of kiba dachi = horse stance. Lots of stesso tempo techniques = single time techniques, especially ones that block and attack.

Links:

To organize later

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