gamma
The mid-tones or mid-level grays of an image. In image editing this is typically represented by a "curve" tool. The x-axis represents the original brightness values (0-255) and the y-axis represents any modifications.
gateway
A gateway connects two or more network segments together, where the segments are of dissimilar systems (eg PC with Macintosh) or protocols (eg TCP/IP with IPX/SPX). Neither a bridge or a router can perform these functions.

A gateway is usually a computer with gateway software. A gateway is slower than either a bridge or router because of all the processing it performs. See also my article on Portal Devices.
gawk
See awk.
GDI
Graphical Device Interface. A Windows standard for representing graphics and transmitting them to monitors, printers, and other output devices.
GDI printer
Aka host-based printer. A printer that utilizes the Window's GDI to rasterize output instead of converting to PostScript, PCL, or some other format first. GDI printers tend to be cheaper than conventional printers but can slow its host computer and is also dependent on the host computer's power and speed.
Generalized Markup Language
See GML.
Geographic Information Systems
See GIS.
ghost imaging
A method of capturing the contents of a hard drive (including its data, configuration settings, and applications) into an image that can be stored onto a server or burned onto a CD. Ghosting software on a floppy disk can then be used to retrieve and install the image to duplicate the image onto a machine. This is especially good if many machines need to be configured in the same way.
GIF
.gif or .giff. Graphical Interchange Format. (Often pronounced as "jiff".) The most common computer graphic file format. Often used for color web illustrations. It can save in 1 bit (black and white) or 8 bit  (grayscale or 256 colors). In 8 bit images, GIF supports transparency by designating one color, the one in the upper left hand corner, to be transparent, i.e. the color will change to the background color. GIF is accessible by Macs and PCs. Unisys is laughably holding on to their patent for the compression technology used in GIFs. Some people have suggested converting to PNG, an open graphic file format, but that's never going to happen is it?
GIF89
.gif or .giff. A version of GIF that was created in 1989. It stores multiple images in one file and is often used for color web animations. It can be treated like a regular GIF in HTML files.
gigabit Ethernet
See 1000BASE-T.
gigabit Point Of Presence
See gigaPOP.
gigaPOP
gigabit Point Of Presence. A network access point that supports data transfer rates of at least 1 Gb/s. gigaPOPs are used primarily for accessing high speed networks such as I2.
GIMP
(1) GNU Image Manipulation Program. A graphics editing program that works mostly with raster (pixelated) images but also does some vector image work. GIMP is famous for being one of the first open source apps for end users (as opposed to hi tech geeks). GIMP runs on most operating systems. Adobe PhotoShop, of course, can do more sophisticated stuff than GIMP.

(2) A sadomasochistic term for a sex slave. A gimp is usually male and dressed in a black leather (or rubber, latex, etc.) outfit and mask that emphasizes sexual areas.
GIOP
General Inter-ORB Protocol. See CORBA.
GIS
Geographic Information Systems. Systems used to gather, transform, manipulate, analyze, view, and generate information related to the surface of the earth. This can include maps, point nodes, zip codes, 3D models, tables, lists, x-y-z or lognitude-latitude-elevation coordinates, GPS (Global Positioning System), etc. This can be custom systems or utilize off the shelf software.
Glimpse
GLobal IMPlicit SEarch. A search engine for indexing and querying a depository of documents.
glob
(1) A UNIX function that expands file names.

(2) Pattern matching for any number of any characters in a string. In DOS this would be "*". In most regular expressions this would be ".*". In SQL this would be "%". EG: In DOS, "a*.txt" would match files like "ab.txt", "a.txt", and "alpha3.txt" but not "beta.txt".
global variable
A variable whose scope is within the entire program that declared it as opposed to just within a function within the program. See also local variable.
GML
Generalized Markup Language. A computer language that preceded SGML, HTML, and XML. It was developed in 1969 by the team at IBM headed by Charles F. Goldfarb, Ed Mosher, and Ray Lorie. It is not coincidence that GML are also the initials of the team heads.
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time. Aka UTC. The time in Greenwich. GMT is the reference time for all other time zones by international standard. EG: CST (Central Standard Time) the time zone that Chicago is in, is 6 hours behind GMT, i.e. when it is 3 PM in Chicago, it is 9 PM in London. See also Time.
GNU
\guh-noo\. GNU's Not Unix. GNU is a project launched in 1983 by Richard Stallman. Richard Stallman invented the concept of "free software" in response to his perception of restrictiveness at MIT.edu. GNU is most famous for its free-source version of Unix --all other open-source versions of Unix since have been called types of "Linux". The GNU has grown into the Free Software Foundation [FSF.org].
GNUZip
See GZ.
goatse
This offensive word will turn up in surprising places when speaking or reading comuputer tech stuff. A goatse is anything that looks like someone is hold his or her butt cheeks apart to reveal his or her anus.
Godwin's Law
"As a Usenet discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches one." A sort of silly rule of thumb for knowing when a discussion thread has gotten so heated, old, and/or off-topic. See also FAQs.org/faqs/usenet/legends/godwin/.
Gopher
Internet protocol that allows users to find and retrieve data that is organized by text-based directories. It was released in 1991 by Paul Lindner and Mark McCahill of University of Minnesota.
GPF
General Protection Failure. An error given when a program or driver tries to access memory addresses outside of the range assigned to the program or driver.
graph
According to the graph theory of mathematics and computer science, a graph is a set objects (aka vertices, nodes, dots, etc.) connected by links (aka edges, arcs, lines, etc.). Vertices may or may not be weighted. Edges may or may not be weighted. Edges may or may not be directional. See also chart.
Graphical Device Interface
See GDI.
Graphical Interchange Format
See GIF.
Graphic Usage Interface
See GUI.
Greenwich Mean Time
See GMT.
grep
Global /  Regular Expression / Print. A Unix command and Windows utility that basically searches specified file(s) for a given character string or pattern, and returns the line(s) found that contains the submitted expression. The usual syntax for Unix is as follows:
grep expression FileList grep dog myFile.txt
grok
"To drink". To understand so completely that the subject matter is intuitive. The term was invented by science fiction writer Robert Heinlein in his novel Stranger in a Strange Land. "Grok means to understand so thoroughly that the observer becomes a part of the observed—to merge, blend, intermarry, lose identity in group experience. It means almost everything that we mean by religion, philosophy, and science—and it means as little to us (because we are from Earth) as color means to a blind man." -Stranger in a Strange Land.
group
A collection of user accounts that can be treated as a single entity. EG: The Sales group may consist of John, Jane, and Jim.
groupware
Applications which are like soupped up e-mail client programs but are designed for collaborative efforts, thus can handle schedules, calendars, images, and documents that are reviewed/handled by many peopled. Lotus Notes and MS Exchange/Outlook are the big two.
GTG
Got To Go.
gTLD
See TLD.
GUI
Graphical Usage Interface. (Often pronounced as "gooey".) Interfacing with a computer using visual symbols, icons, pull down menus, a mouse, and text instead of predominantly just text. GUIs should have a consistent look between different programs and utilize WYSIWYG. EG: The Mac OS, OS/2, and Windows 95 have a GUI but DOS has a command line interface. See also CLI.
GunZip
See gz.
gutter
The blank space between columns or between the printable area and the binding.
gz
.gz. A file that has been compressed with GNUZip or gzip, a UNIX file compression program. It is usually decompressed with a sister program called gunzip with this syntax: gunzip filename.gz.
gzip
See gz.

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